Cloudamericainc-library.com - When learning a new language, it is always useful to be familiar with its main grammatical units. This constitutes the first necessary step in order to understand and create meaningful speech.
Here are the main grammatical elements in Spanish and some useful information about them:
A noun is a word which is mostly used to refer to a person or thing. All nouns in Spanish have a gender, meaning that they are either masculine or feminine. For example, ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âniÃÆÃÂ±oÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (boy) is masculine and ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âniÃÆÃÂ±aÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (girl) is feminine. The best way to identify gender is undoubtedly experience, although here are some general guidelines which may be useful at the beginning: usually nouns ending in ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢â¬Åo are masculine and nouns ending in ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢â¬Åa are feminine. Of course there are always exceptions.
For example, ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âmanoÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (hand) and ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âradioÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (radio) are feminine. On the other hand, words of Greek origin ending in ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢â¬Åma, such as ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âdilemaÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (dilemma) or ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âproblemaÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (problem) are masculine. When you are learning new vocabulary, it is recommendable that you learn a noun together with its corresponding article. That will help you to remember their gender. For example ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âla niÃÆÃÂ±aÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ, ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âla manoÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ or ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âel problemaÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ and ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
Adjectives are used to qualify a particular noun, to say something about it. It is important to remember that in Spanish they are usually placed after the noun. Since adjectives are always related to a noun, they have to agree with them in gender and number.
This means that if you want to say something about the noun ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âniÃÆÃÂ±oÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ, which is masculine and singular, the adjective that you use will also have to be masculine and singular. Thus, you can say ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âniÃÆÃÂ±o altoÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (tall boy), ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âniÃÆÃÂ±o pequeÃÆÃÂ±oÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (small boy), etc. If, on the other hand, if you were talking about a girl, you would have to say ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âniÃÆÃÂ±a altaÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ and ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
Pronouns substitute for nouns. For example, you can say ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âla niÃÆÃÂ±a estÃÆÃÂ¡ aquÃÆÃÂÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (the girl is here) or ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âella estÃÆÃÂ¡ aquÃÆÃÂÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (she is here). In this case ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âellaÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ is substituting for ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âla niÃÆÃÂ±aÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ. The subject pronouns in Spanish are ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âyoÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (I), ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âtÃÆÃÂº/usted/vosÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (singular you), ÃÆÃÂ©l (he), ella (she), nosotros (we), vosotros/ustedes (plural you), ellos (they).
The singular and plural ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âyouÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ are used differently depending on the dialect of Spanish that you are using. It is important to remember that subject pronouns are frequently omitted in Spanish, since the ending of the verb already indicates this. Thus, native spears would say ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âestoy aquÃÆÃÂÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (IÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢âÂ¢m here) rather than ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âyo estoy aquÃÆÃÂÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ.
Verbs indicate actions. Usually when you enumerate a verb, you use what is called the infinitive, for example ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âhablarÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (to speak). In Spanish there are three different types of verbs, depending of how their infinitive ends. These different categories are called conjugations.
Thus, there are verbs ending in ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢â¬Åar, such as ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âhablarÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ, in -er ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âcomerÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (to eat) and in ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢â¬Åir ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âdormirÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ (to sleep). As mentioned before, verbs in Spanish have different endings depending on who the subject of the action is. These endings will vary from one conjugation to the other. For example, with the verb ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âhablarÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ, the singular ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âyouÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ is ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
â(tÃÆÃÂº) hablasÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ, whereas with ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
âcomerÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ it is ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã
â(tÃÆÃÂº) comesÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÂ. This can obviously be complicated for learners at the beginning, but once you get used to it, you will have no problem communicating effectively.